Synthetic fibers , also known as synthetic fibres (in British English; see spelling variations) are the fibers created by humans via chemical synthesis, in contrast to natural fibers which are directly made from living organisms like plant fibers (like cotton) or fur from animals. They result from intensive research conducted by scientists to reproduce natural animal and plant fibers. Synthetic fibers are made by extruding fiber-forming materials using spinnerets and forming the fiber like Aluminium extrusion. They are referred to as synthetic or synthetic fibers. The term “polymer” comes from the Greek suffix “poly” that means “many” and the suffix “mer” that is a reference to “single unit”. (Note that each unit of a polymer can be known as monomer).
The first fiber that was fully synthetic was glass. Joseph Swan invented one of the first synthetic fibers in the 1880s and today, it is described as semisynthetic with precise use. The fiber was derived from a liquid cellulose, created by chemically altering the fibers found in the tree bark. The fiber that was created by this process was chemically identical similar to carbon filaments Swan created to power the incandescent bulb, however, Swan quickly realized that the possibility of using the filament to revolutionize the manufacturing of textiles. In 1885, he revealed fabrics made from this synthetic substance at the International Inventions Exhibition in London.
Next, the next stage was made by Hilaire de Chardonnet who was an French industrialist and engineer, who developed the first artificial silk, which he referred to as “Chardonnet silk”. In the latter half of 1870s, Chardonnet was working together with Louis Pasteur on a remedy to the ailment which was killing French silkworms. Inability to clean up an accident in the darkroom led to Chardonnet’s discovery of Nitrocellulose, a possible replacement for silk. Recognizing the importance of such an invention, Chardonnet began to develop his own product, which was displayed during the Paris Exhibition of 1889. The material he developed by Chardonnet was extremely inflammable and was later substituted with other, more durable substances.